Cancer Statistics Explorer

Glossary of terms

Age

Age is calculated at different times depending on the measure.

     If measure is...

... then Age is age at...

Incidence

Diagnosis

Mortality

Death

Prevalence

Calendar year while alive e.g. a cancer patient who was alive on 31st December 2007 is included in the prevalence count for 2007 at his/her age that year.

 

Age is calculated by truncating the age value to the next smaller integer, e.g. both 45.1 yrs and 45.9 yrs are truncated to 45 yrs.

Age-standardised rate (ASR)

The hypothetical rate, expressed as the number of cases per 100,000 persons, of cancer incidence or mortality in a group of people if their age distribution is the same as that in a standard or reference population.
 
An ASR is used to compare cancer incidence or mortality between populations with different sizes and age structures. The different populations can represent different states or countries, as well as different time periods for the same geographic region.
 
The ASR allows tracking of incidence and mortality trends that are not due to changes or differences in population size or age. Cancer incidence and mortality generally increases over time as a result of population growth and ageing. Similarly, cancer incidence will usually differ between two populations of similar sizes if one population is older than the other.
 
The standard populations used in the calculation of an ASR are listed below.

Age Group

Australia 2001

Australia 2001

(per 100,000)

0-4

1,282,357

                        6,600

5-9

1,351,664

                        7,000

10-14

1,353,177

                        7,000

15-19

1,352,745

                        7,000

20-24

1,302,412

                        6,700

25-29

1,407,081

                        7,200

30-34

1,466,615

                        7,500

35-39

1,492,204

                        7,700

40-44

1,479,257

                        7,600

45-49

1,358,594

                        7,000

50-54

1,300,777

                        6,700

55-59

1,008,799

                        5,200

60-64

822,024

                        4,200

65-69

682,513

                        3,500

70-74

638,380

                        3,300

75-79

519,356

                        2,700

80-84

330,050

                        1,700

85+

265,235

                        1,400

Total

19,413,240

                   100,000

 

First Nations peoples

The terminology First Nations peoples refers to the Aboriginal peoples and Torres Strait Islander peoples, their nations, societies, and language groups that have occupied these lands since time immemorial.

Incidence

The number of new cases of invasive cancers among Queensland residents over a given period of time.

Incidence per 100K

Incidence per 100,000 people in the Queensland population.

Incidence ASR Aust per 100K

Incidence rate standardised to the age distribution of Australia in 2001 expressed per 100,000 Queensland population.

See ASR for more information.

Indigenous regions (IREGs)

Indigenous Regions (IREGs) are large geographical areas based on historical boundaries. The larger population of Indigenous Regions enables highly detailed analysis.

Click here for more information about IREGs. https://www.abs.gov.au/statistics/standards/australian-statistical-geography-standard-asgs-edition-3/jul2021-jun2026

Kaplan Meier survival

Kaplan Meier is the method use to estimate the probability of surviving beyond a specific time from diagnosis, with failure (or event) defined as death from any cause.

Lifetime risk of diagnosis (or death)

The lifetime risk of diagnosis refers to the odds that someone will be diagnosed (or die from) cancer over the course of their lifetime. Data in the Explorer is calculated using an average life expectancy of 85 years.  Lifetime risks presented are average risks for the Queensland population and an individuals own risk may be higher or lower than this depending on particular risk factors.

Local Government Areas (LGAs)

A Local Government Area (LGA) is one of the spatial units defined under the non-ABS structures of the Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS).

Click here to see more about Queensland LGAs. https://www.qgso.qld.gov.au/geographies-maps/maps/queensland-local-government-areas-lga-2016

Median age

The age that divides a population into two halves: one older than the median, the other younger than the median.

See Age for more information.

Mortality (deaths)

The number of deaths attributed to cancer in a defined population during a specified time period regardless of when the diagnosis of cancer was made.

Mortality per 100K

Mortality per 100,000 people in the Queensland population.

Mortality ASR Aust per 100K

Mortality rate standardised to the age distribution of Australia in 2001, expressed per 100,000 Queensland population.

See Age for more information.

Non First Nations peoples

A person who does not identify as Aboriginal peoples and/or Torres Strait Islander peoples (First Nations peoples).

Overall survival rate (1-year, 2-year, 5-year, 10-year, 15-year, 20-year, 25-year)

The percentage of cancer cases still alive after a specified period of time from diagnosis.

Population

Estimated Resident Populations (ERPs) are used for the calculation of incidence and mortality rates.  Click here for more information regarding Queensland ERPs. https://qheps.health.qld.gov.au/hsu/infobank/infobank-demography#estimated

Primary Health Networks (PHNs)

Click here for more information about PHN. https://www.health.gov.au/resources/collections/primary-health-networks-phns-collection-of-concordance-files

Queensland Hospital and Health Services

For populations, a Hospital and Health Service (HHS) is a geographic area defined by a collection of Statistical Area Level (SAs).

Click here for a map of Queensland HHS. https://www.health.qld.gov.au/maps
 
The list of HHS and their geographic boundaries can be downloaded at https://qheps.health.qld.gov.au/hsu/infobank/geography.
 
For public hospital and health service facilities, a HHS is a group of Queensland Health owned and operated facilities that provide health resources and services mainly, but not exclusively, to people who reside in a particular geographic area.

Remoteness (of residence/death)

Relative remoteness of residence based on the Australian Standard Geographical Standard (ASGS), with "Remote" and "Very Remote" categories merged into one group and the "Migratory" group excluded.

Remoteness group

Major City

Inner Regional

Outer Regional

Remote & Very Remote

Click here for more information about ASGS remoteness categories. https://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/Lookup/1270.0.55.005Main+Features1July%202016?OpenDocument

Sex

Refers to the biological and physiological characteristics that define men and women.

Socioeconomic group

Socioeconomic classification based on the Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFA), a census-based measure of social and economic well-being developed by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) and aggregated at the level of Statistical Areas Level 2 (SA2s).

Click here for more information about SEIFA. https://www.abs.gov.au/websitedbs/censushome.nsf/home/seifa

The ABS uses SEIFA scores to rank regions into ten groups or deciles numbered 1 to 10, with 1 being the most disadvantaged group and 10 being the most affluent group. This ranking is useful at the national level, but the number of people in each decile often becomes too small for meaningful comparisons when applied to a subset of the population. For this reason, the Explorer further aggregates SEIFA deciles into 5 socioeconomic groups (quintiles):

Group                      SEIFA Quintile

       Quintile 1                  Quintile 1 - Disadvantaged

       Quintile 2                  Quintile 2 - Middle

       Quintile 3                  Quintile 3 - Middle

       Quintile 4                  Quintile 4 - Middle

       Quintile 5                  Quinitile 5 - Affluent

 

Statistical Area Level 4 (SA4)

Statistical Areas Level 4 (SA4) are geographical areas built from whole Statistical Areas Level 3 (SA3s). 

Click here for more information about ASGS SA4s. https://www.abs.gov.au/websitedbs/d3310114.nsf/home/australian+statistical+geography+standard+(asgs).

Relative survival (1-year, 2-year, 5-year, 10-year, 15-year, 20-year, 25-year)

The ratio between the survival proportion who have a particular disease or condition against the expected survival of a comparable group from the general population, taking into account age, sex and year of diagnosis.

Year

Calendar year based on different events depending on the measure. 

     If measure is...

... then Year is calendar year at...

Incidence

Diagnosis

Mortality

Death

Prevalence

Calendar year while alive e.g. a cancer patient who was alive on 31st December 2007 is included in the prevalence count for 2007 at his/her age that year.